NASA warns that a long winter can hit the space. Record temperatures could be recorded

A long winter and record low temperatures could be felt in space, NASA warns. A space agency researcher says the sunspot activity is extremely low, which will record record temperatures in space. However, the Earth’s climate will not be affected.

“We are seeing a cooling trend,” said Martin Mlynczak of the Langley Research Center, NASA. He added that at a high height of the Earth’s surface, near the border with space, our atmosphere loses heat. If current trends continue, we could soon determine a new record of reduced space temperatures..

According to FoxNews, this phenomenon may affect weather conditions in space, may disrupt communications and navigation systems. Mlynczak and his colleagues have recently introduced the “Thermosphere Climate Index” that measures the amount of nitrous oxide removed in space. The results were provided by NASA’s TIMBER satellite SABER instrument, which monitors infrared emissions from carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide.

By measuring the infrared light of these molecules, SABER can determine the thermal state of the gas in the upper layer of the atmosphere, a layer called thermosphere. When the thermosphere cools down, it decreases, which makes the atmosphere of the Earth smaller. This slows down the natural decomposition of the garbage and leads to an agglomeration around the planet.

An impressive detail found in a piece of amber that’s 100 million years old

A feather coming from the tail of a bird that lived about 100 million years ago was discovered in an amber by a team of scientists from China and Canada.

Unlike most of the tail feathers found in compression fossils, the amber has up to three-dimensional structure and contains more information.

The feather dates back to the beginning of the Cretaceous, an important period for bird evolution. During this period, certain types of dinosaurs evolved into birds.

The piece of amber containing the preserved feather area was discovered in the Hukawng Valley in northern Myanmar, a region rich in such fossils.

Xing Lida, a professor at the Chinese Geological Sciences University noted that amber may contain different types of soft tissues and offer valuable paleontological information.

Photo source: Ryan McKellar / Royal Saskatchewan Museum

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A new artificial brain for autonomous robots was created by an important company

NVIDIA had a plan to use the power of accelerating solutions provided by artificial intelligence to develop a synthetic brain. It would be easily programmable and powerful enough to control robots. A large automation area has led to the launch of a commercial product.

Available at prices starting at $1299, the new Jetson AGX Xavier can become the brain of a new generation of robots and other intelligent machines.

It is delivered in batches of at least 1000 pieces and is basically a standalone computer, consisting of no less than 6 distinct processors. Managing basic functions and loading the operating system is done using a conventional octa-core processor based on ARM cores (8-core ARM v8.2 64-bit CPU, 8MB L2 + 4MB L3). The processing of artificial intelligence algorithms is done using a 512-core Volta GPU with Tensor Cores. The configuration includes two other NVIDIA chips that provide deep learning capabilities, image processor, video inputs and “artificial viewing” support.

Remarkably, the entire module has a very low power consumption of just 10W and enough capacity to process “30 trillions of calculations per second”.

NVIDIA is already released a list of key customers: JD.COM (an online shopping giant interested in developing robots for delivering orders to Chinese customers), Yamaha (drone AI) and Nanopore (a DNA analysis company) .

It remains to be seen if the release of the Jetson AGX Xavier will help NVIDIA become an important player in the field of artificial robotics and intelligence. It is certain that the manufacturer of graphics accelerators has made great investments in artificial intelligence technologies, and the company’s AI processing solutions have achieved impressive performance. Accumulated with the AGX Xavier Developer Kit, Nvidia already provides a complete solution for developing AI applications and deploying them in machines that are capable of performing complex tasks.

Graphene could give us the electronics of the future much faster

New experiments presented in Nature magazine seem to show that this substance composed of a single layer of carbon atoms can transform electronic signals transmitted in gigahertz into higher frequency signals. We are talking about terahertz, capable of carrying up to 1,000 times more information per second.

Electromagnetic waves in the terahertz range are notoriously difficult to create and conventional silicon-based electronics have trouble handling these high-frequency signals. Now it seems that graphene-based devices could handle these signals more easily. Future electronic devices based on graphene instead of silicon could work much faster than current devices.

Graphene receives the signals transmitted in incoming gigahertz (black) and transforms them into waves in the terahertz range that have three, five and seven times the original frequency (red, green and blue, respectively).

Graphene effect on electronic frequency

The physicist Dmitry Turchinovich, of the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany, and colleagues, have tested the ability of graphene to amplify the signals in the order of terahertz by injecting a sheet of this dense material of atoms with 300 gigahertz electromagnetic irradiation. When these electromagnetic waves hit graphene, the electrons in the material heat and cool rapidly, releasing electromagnetic waves with frequencies up to seven times higher than the incoming radiation. This is a surprising new quality of graphene.

Graphene continues to reserve surprises for researchers for its extraordinary properties. It is not long ago, for example, the discovery that a sheet in two dimensions of this material is able to conduct the electric current virtually without resistance.

Graphene converted more than one thousandth, one ten thousandth and one hundred thousandth of the original signal of 300 gigahertz into waves at 0.9, 1.5 and 2.1 terahertz, respectively. This conversion rate may seem small, but it is extraordinarily high for a single layer of atoms.

Making computers based on graphene exploiting this property would allow machines to operate at the terahertz frequencies. Of course, perhaps for a normal PC, this material could be excessive. But the technology could be used in very advanced computers that require high processing speeds.

Another application for which a graphene sheet could be used could be to create nanotubes able to transmit information at very high speed.

Why did the FBI suddenly evacuated the space observatory in New Mexico?

National Solar Observatory (NSO) in Sunspot, New Mexico, was shut down by FBI agents earlier this month (September 2018) due to security concerns, but the facility was reopened later on. Even so, many of us are wondering what are the reasons behind this action.

At present, the solar observatory no longer represents a security issue, but conspiracy theorists are not relaxed on this particular topic. According to AURA (Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy), the location is now re-opened, but the association has temporarily hired a security team to patrol the site.

AURA made this statement back on September 16th:
“The decision to vacate was based on the logistical challenges associated with protecting personnel at such a remote location, and the need for expeditious response to the potential threat,” the statement adds. “AURA determined that moving the small number of on-site staff and residents off the mountain was the most prudent and effective action to ensure their safety.”

Even so, the question remains:

Why did the FBI suddenly evacuated space observatory in New Mexico?

Let me begin by saying that an official statement regarding the reason why the New Mexico observatory was evacuated was not yet released and I don’t know if we’ll ever going to have one. Even so, with a little digging I was able to find out that the reason seems to be a local investigation regarding a child porn probe.

Other theories

Now, let’s get into the wild and see what fans of conspiracy theories have to say about this event. Some of them will argue that he reason for closing down the observatory was an UFO that was observed in the vicinity of the Sun. Another theory states that just by the time this was happening, there was a massive hole that appeared on the Sun’s surface. The theory was taken one step further and some people said that these alleged super-flares could wipe us all out in the near future. Of course, there is also this theory that states something else: “Chinese were spying on White Sands Missle Range tests via antennae array at observatory site.”

Positioned on Sacramento Peak, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) was opened for the first time back in in 1947. This particular observatory provides the clearest images of the Sun, and the information obtained here is useful to specialists around the world.

Scientists created the first human esophagus made from stem cells

Bioengineering scientists working to produce the entire human gastrointestinal system in the laboratory reported that pluripotent stem cells were used to create a human esophagus. This is the first time scientists have been able to grow human pluripotent stem cell (PSC) esophageal tissue, cells that theoretically can form any type of body tissue.

Published in the Cell Stem Cell diary, the study presents the latest innovatotion from researchers at the Center for Stem Cell and Organoid Medicine (CTU) in Cincinnati, United States. The center has the main stakes in finding new ways to study birth defects and diseases affecting millions of people with gastrointestinal disorders. The new work can lead to new personalized diagnostic methods and also focuses on the development of tissue regeneration therapies to treat or cure gastrointestinal disorders.

According to Jim Wells of CuSTOM, lead author of the study, diseases of the esophagus and trachea are common enough in humans so human models of organ esophagus are extremely beneficial. This could be useful to restore the tissue of the esophagus to patients.

After generating complete esophagus organoids – which increased to a length of 300-800 microns in about two months – the artificial tissues were then compared from the biochemical point of view with the natural ones from the biopsies. The tests showed a similarity in composition. This is a first step in the many that will follow in the process of creating the esophagus in the lab, exploiting the therapeutic potential of the method.

Are infrared radiant heating panels beneficial to health?

Infrared radiant heating panels are being promoted aggressively recently. Marketeers say about these device that they represent a safe way to reduce the heating bill. Some will go one step further and say that they have “miraculous therapeutic effects”. Of course, all these alleged health benefits does not have a reputable scientific study to back the claims but hey… if it is cheap and it works, people will buy them regardless. Among the alleged “therapeutic effects” we find expressions like “improving blood circulation”, “relieving rheumatic pain”, “removing heavy metals from the body,” “slowing down aging” “improving vision” and many others. But what are these assertions based on and how real are the positive health effects?

How radiant heating panels work

Are infrared radiant heating panels beneficial to health?

Before answering the question, I should explain the basic principle for these panels. An infrared radiant heating panel bounces infrared rays around the room, heating the objects they come into contact with, including objects and people. Everything starts from the statement that radiant panels emit radiation similar to that produced by the Sun. In other words, they are supposed to offer “natural” heating. But the Sun does not only emit radiation in the infrared spectrum but a whole range of electromagnetic waves, and the benefits associated with exposure to the Sun are not due exclusively associated to one of them.

In fact, the study by researchers at Edinburgh and Southampton universities claim that exposure to sunlight could help lower blood pressure, highlighting ultraviolet radiation as beneficial, with only heat exposure not having a positive influence. The conclusions are based on examining the effects of 20 minute session exposure to sun. Minor risks of prolonged exposure to the Sun are quite obvious to all those who stayed at the beach more than they should have been, and one of the major risks is skin cancer.

With regard to the claims on “improving rheumatic pain”, these claims are based on a study that was focused on the influence of infrared saunas on patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Overlooking the fact that the study was funded by the company selling saunas, the lack of side effects is valid for exposure to 30 minutes twice a week for four weeks.

Infrared radiation has negative effects on the human body

Prolonged exposure to infrared radiation has more negative effects, highlighted by scientific studies. Thus, research on “Effects of Infrared Radiation and Heat on Human Skin Aging” analyzed the effects of infrared radiation on the skin and concluded that they contribute to premature aging of the epidermis. The results were confirmed by further studies, published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology.

The International Commission on Non-ionized Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has drawn attention since 2006 that prolonged exposure to infrared radiation may cause corneal damage due to excessive heating. The effects of various types of radiation on vision are detailed in an article published by Optometry Today, and NASA and other organizations have explained several times how infrared radiation can permanently affect the retina when looking at a Sun eclipse without protecting the eyes with special glasses.

Infrared radiant heating panels: Final conclusion

Although near infrared medical laser devices have been used in tests to remove cancerous tumors, it does not mean that the infrared rays that are reflected through the room can prevent cancer. Radiant panels were used for industrial heating, and the overall conclusion of these studies would be that they should remain in that area. Until new research to show any potential health benefit, radiant panels remain a legally unregulated business. Distributors can say anything without providing a study to back the claims. You should be informed if you decide to buy such a radiant panel.

A large asteroid will be approaching Earth in just few days

NASA has released a warning on an asteroid that is considered to be “potentially dangerous”. The space object is called 2016 NF23 and it will pass near our planet on August 29, at a distance of 13.4 times the distance between the Moon to Earth. That’s more than three million miles (4.8million km) or just 0.03377 astronomical units

In astronomical terms, this means that it will pass near us, hence the cataloging of the asteroid as “potentially dangerous”.

The asteroid has a speed of over 20,000mph or nine kilometers per second, and its diameter is between 70-160 meters.

In recent years, NASA experts have been trying to detect dim and smaller asteroids, which are about 140 feet in diameter. Although these space objects are harder to observe, they have a potential impact would prove catastrophic. However, astronomers argue that over 90% of large asteroids with a diameter of more than 1 km have already been discovered and they are monitored constantly.

How to Recover files deleted with Empty Recycle Bin function

Most operating systems have a recycle bin that acts as a fail safe. It gathers all the deleted files and keeps them there until you decide what to do next. You can restore some of the files in the recycle bin (trash) or you can empty the Recycle Bin. Now, here comes the funny part. Once you decide to empty the Recycle Bin (trash), those files are deleted for good and you will not be able to recover them easily. Sure, you might say that no one makes the mistake of sending a file to trash and later emptying the Recycle Bin without verifying what’s inside. In real life, people are in a hurry and they usually discover that they’ve deleted crucial data by doing this very mistake: Delete -> Empty recycle bin.

Do not create new contend on the disk

So, what can you do in this situation? You will find many tutorials and small apps on the Internet that will try (some of them even succeed) to get your files back. But before talking about that, I want to let you know that there’s a catch. If you understand how computer storage works, you will learn that the best way to act once you have deleted a file is not to create any more content on that particular hard drive. When a file is deleted with the “Empty Recycle Bin” function, the operating system is not really removing the content, but rather its reference / header. So, although the information is there, its space on the disk is mark as “usable”. Because its reference (header) is missing, the operating system will no longer show you the file and is waiting for you to create new data that will be stored in that particular space. That’s why it is important not to create new content.

How to Recover files deleted with Empty Recycle Bin function

As I said, you will find plenty of apps that will do the job for you. Some of them are plain simple, some require a minimum level of computer skills and some are pretty difficult to operate with. Now, since this is a subjective approach to the topic, I will try to filter all the noise and give you the solution that worked for me best in most cases: EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard 12. After trying few alternative apps, I settled for this recycle bin recovery solution for these reasons:

  • The interface is simple and intuitive
  • The free version allows you to recover up to 2GB of data
  • I managed to recover the highest percentage of deleted content with this app
  • There is an organizer that allows you to filter the discovered files and recover just the files you need
  • The preview function that allows you to preview the content of each file.
  • There is a “Save session” function that saves a lot of time, especially if you have not completed the recovery process and you need to continue the next day.
  • This particular recovery software works great for recovering content from memory cards and corrupted memory cards

EASE-US-RECYCLE-BIN

The steps you need to take in order to recover deleted Recycle Bin files

  1. Open EaseUS Data Recover
  2. Select the partition where the operating system is installed (usually that’s C:)
  3. Click the Scan button
  4. Wait for the scanning process to complete
  5. Click the Filter button and choose Recycle Bin results
  6. Select the files you want to recover and press the Recover button
  7. Select a location on the disc and click OK button.
  8. Enjoy your recovered files

How to avoid deleting important files on your computer?

As you may know, it’s better to prevent than to treat a problem, but people learn this the hard way. The best way to keep your important files away from Recycle Bin is to organize and backup. In other words, you should keep your desktop clean and move files in folders. Try to backup folders that include important files as often as you can. You can use various free cloud solutions like DropBox, Google Drive or even Box.net. You never know when that backed up data may save your life!

Top 5 video projectors of 2018 based on image quality and price

In this article I will try to answer few questions regarding video projectors. What can you do with a video projector? What is the best video projector and how to choose one?

A video projector allows you to organize document presentations, pictures, videos and to watch movies. By using a video projector, you can also play games and enjoy a cinematic experience at the same time. In other words, the possibilities of using such a device are almost limitless. But in order to fully enjoy them, you need to know how to choose a good video projector without spending too much money.

Best Video Projectors: content-dependent types

There are 4 main types of content that can be presented when using a video projector: presentations (text based), video, pictures and games. Most of the video projectors handle all types of data, but some are better for movies, while others are specially designed for business presentations. This is the reason why home electronics stores exhibit projectors divided into two major categories: business video projectors and home video projectors. The first category works great with displaying PowerPoint presentations, PDF files, Excel and more. The projectors  designed for home usage are primarily designed for movies and posters.

When we have decided to create this top containing the best video projectors you can buy, we have focused our attention on Home units. They perform better with document presentations than business projectors perform with movies.

There are 3 projection technologies used for video projection: LCD, DLP and LCoS.

1. LCD or liquid crystal display – is a technology coming from TVs. The LCD projectors use three panels of crystals, each designed to create images using one of three primary colors: red, green or blue. At the simultaneous design of the 3 images, a common color image is obtained.

2. DLP or digital light processing – involves the use of a micro-chip chip that reflects the light to the screen or to the opposite direction. Colors are obtained thanks to a rotated filter with three basic colors, which rotates in front, creates the range of colors needed for the image. There are DLP video projectors that use 3 chips, one for each base color. This decision solves the problem of the rainbow effect of single-chip units, but it is more expensive.

3. LCoS or liquid crystal on silicon – is a somewhat hybrid technology, where light is reflected by micro-glows – like DLP, and light blocking takes place with liquid crystal – like the LCD. The LCoS video projectors offer the best picture, but the price is a bit on the pricey side.

LCD vs. DLP vs. LCoS – which is the best video projector?

If we are talking about video projector having the best contrast, the winner is the LCoS. There is a constantly fight for the second place, and the DLP units seem to lose their position, especially since the LCD projectors have exhibited outstanding performance lately.

If you plan to buy a video projector with best brightness, you should go for a DLP or a LCD video projector. Talking about the most beautiful colors on a video projector, it’s difficult to pinpoint a winner. There is a tie between them three, mainly since the performances depend on each projector individually.

Best Video Projector: Resolution

Ideally, the native resolution of a video projector should be identical to the resolution of the tracked content. If you plan to use the video projector for projecting movies, you should get one with a 16:9 or 16:10 resolution. If the budget is not an issue, you should get a projector with 1080p resolution. It should allow you to watch the movies you love at the highest clarity. But these type of projectors are not cheap, so if you are on a tight budget, you should go for the next best thing: 720p or 800p video projectors.

Top 5 video projectors of 2018 that you can buy right now IN EUROPE

BenQ 3D TH683

1. BenQ 3D TH683

This device is built around DLP projection technology. It offers a 10000: 1 contrast and a native resolution of 1920 x 1080 with a 16: 9 aspect ratio. The minimum diagonal it can project is 1.47 meters and the maximum diagonal – 4.41 meters. TH683 has 3D capability, a 10W speaker and a lamp expected lifetime of 10,000 hours. On the back, we find two HDMI connectors, Audio in and out, composite input, RS232C, one VGA input, 1 USB, 1 USB B, 1 MHL.

Pros:

  • Native resolution 1080p, great for movies and videos
  • Compared to other units, the lamp has a long lasting life
  • The projected images are crystal clear
  • The rainbow effect is not noticeable
  • Rich and vibrant colors
  • Fair price for quality
  • Easy to use
  • Silent operation
  • It features a built-in 10W speaker

Cons:

  • It has support for 3D content, but it requires additional 3D glasses.

BenQ MW533

2. BenQ MW533

This video projector feature a DLP projection technology. It offers a contrast of 15,000: 1 and a native resolution of 1280×800 with an image aspect of 16:10. The minimum projection diagonal is 1.52 meters and the maximum projection diagonal is 7.63 meters. This projector has 3D capability, 3300 Lumens and an estimated lamp life of 4500 hours. BenQ MW533 features USB, connectors – 2 HDMI, Audio in and out, composite input, RS232, two VGA, USB.

Pros:

  • This projector offers high brightness
  • Clear pictures
  • Bright colors
  • It has two integrated speakers of 2W each
  • It has support for 1080 content
  • Decent price.
  • USB port

Cons:

  • Users reported that it can get a bit noisy sometimes
  • The lamp has an average lifespan
  • It has support for 3D content, but it requires additional 3D glasses.

OPTOMA HD183X

3. OPTOMA HD183X

Specifications: DLP projection technology, contrast – 25000: 1, native resolution – 1280×800, image aspect – 16:10, minimum diagonal – 1,50 meters, maximum diagonal – 10 meters, 3D projection, 3000 lumens, lamp lifetime – 10,000 hours, connectors – HDMI, Audio in and out, composite input, RS232C, VGA, USB.

Pros:

  • Very high contrast for a video projector
  • Compared to other units, the lamp has a long life
  • The rainbow effect is not noticeable
  • It supports 1080p content
  • High Quality images
  • Easy to use
  • Silent operation
  • It has USB input

Cons:

  • It has support for 3D content, but it requires additional 3D glasses.
  • It has a single HDMI input
  • It is not cheap

4. Epson EH-TW5400

Specifications: LCD projection technology, 30000: 1 contrast ratio, native resolution – 1920×1080, 16: 9 aspect ratio, minimum diagonal – 0.80 meters, maximum diagonal – 8.43 meters, supports 3D, 2500 Lumens, lamp life – 4000 hours, connectors – 2 HDMI, Audio in and out, composite input, VGA, USB.

Pros:

  • High brightness
  • Very good contrast
  • Bright colors
  • Native FullHD resolution
  • It features an integrated 5 watt speaker.
  • Very clear pictures

Cons:

  • It is expensive
  • The lamp has a modest life
  • It has support for 3D content, but it requires additional 3D glasses.

Epson EB-W42

5. Epson EB-W42

Specifications: 3LCD projection technology, contrast – 15,000: 1, native resolution – 1280×800, image aspect – 16:10, minimum diagonal – 0.83 meters, maximum diagonal – 8.12 meters, no 3D capability, 3600 lumens, lamp life – 6000 hours, connectors – 1 HDMI / MHL, Audio in and out, S-Video input, VGA input, 1 USB port.

Pros:

  • Very good brightness
  • Clear pictures
  • It has two integrated speakers of 2 watts eac
  • Easy to use

Cons:

  • It can display content only in native resolution
  • It does not support 3D
  • Modest lamp life
  • There are some mixed reviews about it